Expert Blog #2

The social problem that will be discussed is the encounters between police and African-Americans/Blacks. The reason i was interested in this topic is because for the past years, there has been numerous incidents between the two. I feel that this topic is an important one, because there is a boundary where it is okay for a police to use lethal force and when they shouldn’t.

In America, there is an outstanding concern about these issues that have come up recently. This has been a trending topic in the news for a couple of years now.

Some people come up with ideas to help better the social problem, but in reality the situation can take a turn for the worst at any time. In reality, the police are left in a tough spot where their life and the other person’s life is at stake. So when some people may come up with a way to fix the situation, you never know how the situation is going to turn out.

There is actually a lot of people who are saying that there needs to be a change in the way police do their jobs. There are citizens of all races and other police officers that say that there needs to be a solution.

This matter has had national attention for a while now. There has been multiple news segments about the police encounters with African-Americans. There is ways that we could reduce and alleviate this situations. When it comes to the police, the people could cooperate better and when it comes to doing their job, the police could learn to be more professional and less aggressive.

Encounters between black people and police has always been going on. In the past 20 years, people have been starting to react to the incidents more.

Some major recent events would be the killing of Mike Brown, Eric Garner, and Freddie Gray. Mike Brown was a teen from Ferguson, Missouri who was shot and killed by an officer named Darren Wilson. Eric Garner was a adult African/American male who got into an altercation with the police in Staten Island. During this incident, he was put into a choke hold for about  15 to 19 seconds and died. Freddie Gray was a 25 year old male who was arrested for having an illegal switchblade. While being detained, the police was said to have used unnecessary force. While in the back of the police van, Freddie fell into a coma and a week later he died.

There are officers and political figures who stepped in to bring awareness to this situation. There is also a movement called Black Lives Matter who has decided to step up to changing this situation.

Article 1

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ronald_Weitzer/publication/249734933_Police_Relations_with_Black_and_White_Youths_in_Urban_Neighborhoods/links/54f8c6ce0cf210398e96ca68.pdf

In America people normally focus on the adults and their relations with the police, but in reality they forget about the kids. This article is about the youths in different urban neighborhoods. In our country it’s important to get a good understanding on how kids look at the police. With the ongoing events that goes on with police, have started to make an impact on different kids.

Statistically, research has consistently came to a conclusion that age is a predictor of personal experiences and attitudes toward police. Due to young people’s disproportionate and the increase of presence, they tend to have more contacts with police.

In a study, the author of this article examined the thoughts of young white and black males that stay in one in three neighborhoods in St.Louis, Missouri where one is mostly white, one mostly black, and one that is racially mixed. It was said in general, The white youth had less troubled relationships and more positive views of the police. In the black neighborhood, they have reported more problematic situations and treatment than the other two neighborhoods. In the racially mixed one, they actually had a more of a mixed approach when it comes to this and they just fell in between.

In this article, it also talked about the verbal abuse and the unwarranted stops that take place. Most police departments enforce a restriction on insulting language towards citizens.Even though they have these restrictions, there is offensive language that takes place everyday in routine police stops. To add on to this, there is a good bit of unwarranted stops that takes place.

Article 2

http://cad.sagepub.com/content/61/3/350.full.pdf+html

In this article, the author wrote about the impact of race and ethnicity when it comes to policing on citizens. They also gathered data using random surveys that was on the telephones. In the survey they asked the people a series of questions and the results ranged from racially biased policing to the absence of racially biased policing and there was a middle category of “semi racially” biased.

Since the first documented study on police profiling over 100 years ago, many scholars and practitioners have taken a special interest in this topic. This specific study was taken place in Houston, Texas, the fourth largest city in the United Stares. The research that was gathered shows that the policemen and citizen both play a major role in the situation. Some of the people said they see that the police is trying to make an effort to ease the tension with the citizens but they still see racial policing taking place.

Racial policing has always been a topic in the american society. The relationship between African-Americans and the police department has varied from time to time. However, recently, the encounters between police and African-Americans has been getting a lot more publicity. In their study, the people have said that they’ve realized a higher rate of police encounters with black people.

The police department is the enforcement arm for the governmental authority of the United States. By all means necessary, the have to uphold the law even if that means using deadly force. With that being said, the have a certain omnipresent power that’s above the citizens’ opinions. Even though some of the time the police do their jobs the way it should be done, without any causalities, there is that percentage when they don’t.  In this year, there has been 490 police killings and 138 of those were African-Americans. That’s about 30% percent.

Article 3

http://www.skogan.org/files/Citizen_Satisfaction_With_Police_Encounters.PQ_09-05.pdf

This article basically speaks on the consequences and the character of the encounters between the residents and police. Although people’s attitudes play a big role in routine stops, the quality of service still needs to be at it’s best. With the training of the police and their supervision practices, the have the capability of shaping the relationship between them and the residents.

In this specific study, the author examines how people from Chicago relate with the police. They asked to see how often the contact the police for assistance and how often they get stopped. This analysis demonstrates the importance of the quality of routine encounters between citizens and policemen.

In thew survey, the people of Chicago was instructed to describe only events that have taken place in the past year. 20% of the citizens said that they have been stopped by the police either while they were in a car or on foot. That’s higher than the tests that they have done in the past years. In London, they did the same exact survey and they only had 12% get stopped by the police.

Article 4

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Terrance_Taylor/publication/222970233_Coppin’_an_attitude_Attitudinal_differences_among_juveniles_toward_police/links/0c96052f45596285e6000000.pdf

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Terrance_Taylor/publication/222970233_Coppin’_an_attitude_Attitudinal_differences_among_juveniles_toward_police/links/0c96052f45596285e6000000.pdf

In the past decade, the attitudes of the citizens have became a big deal. The police department is trying it’s best to better the relationship with the people. But with the accidents that have been happening, black people tend to have a bad attitude with the police. The reason for that is because a lot of African-Americans have been getting killed in the past couple of years.

Started by the violent encounters with the police, people feel as if they can’t trust the police. In a study, it’s been shown that the people who stay in more less income areas, they tend to have less favorable attitudes towards the police. They reason behind that is that they feel as if they need to worried about the police instead of calling them for help.

Usually in most surveys they study adults, but in this particular study, they focused on the kids. All together, they examined the total of 5,477 students in the eight grade. This data shows that the police is bettering the relationship between them and people. A result of this, was that majority of the kids is think that the police is friendly.

Article 5

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ronald_Weitzer/publication/240525043_Citizens’_perceptions_of_police_misconduct_Race_and_neighborhood_context/links/54f8c8110cf28d6deca2c04c.pdf

In our society, there’s an unresolved issue when it comes to the police. Race and class is two of the strongest predictors and it can hinder the attitudes of certain people. In the particular article, the author examines the influences of race and classes. The data that is found in this article was from multiple well-known neighborhoods.

It has been debated that class is more effective than race. That statement could be argued and can vary in different areas. Regardless of the social class, its a known fact that African-Americans have suffered serious racial discrimination. With that being said, the population could tell that there is a decline in race being a factor and an increase in the consideration of social classes.

There is two approaches that people take when it comes to this: Race-based and Class-based. With a race-based approach, there is a high degree of racial status being taken into consideration. Even though its a big factor, not every police is racially motivated. Then there is the class-based approach where they look at the social classes of the citizen. In perspective, middle class people have better attitudes than poor people when it comes to the police.

The data took place in four different cities: Spartanburg, Merrifield,  Cloverdale, and Washington D.C.. In the results of this survey, the author came to the conclusion that class played a bigger role than race. But even with that being said, instead of class some officers would go off of neighborhood class positions.

Article 6

http://w3.salemstate.edu/~jbelock/mat407/hw3_article.pdf

In this article, a statistician was contacted by an attorney to analyze some specific numbers that the caught his eye. In Gloucester County in 1993, there was a your African-American man that was arrested for possession of drugs. Over the past three years, the attorneys came across 25 African-American defendants who were in the same area as the other person. However, through those three years, there was no white defendants that was caught in that area.

The rate at which blacks are pulled over was greatly disproportional to the numbers on the road and their propensity to violate the law. The attorney also caught interest to a small case that took place a couple years ago. When he did this, he saw that blacks were disproportionately charged with crimes when they are underrepresented in the jury. He also stated that were sentenced to death at a greater rate than numbers could justify.

In one survey, Fred Last, who was a public defender, drove on a specific road just to conduct an experiment. As he was driving, he would count the cars that passed him and would keep record. While driving, he counted 2096 cars and more than 98% of them were speeding.Of that 98%, African-Americans accounted for 35% of the people stopped by the police.

 

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